Preliminary Evaluation of an Online Estimation Method for Organ Geometry and Tissue Stiffness. The proposed sensor solves this problem well. Psychophysical studies have shown that the human haptic touch is rich in information for interaction, e… Reset image size. With the development of medical treatment and the advancement of robot technology, robot-assisted minimally invasive interventional surgery (RMIS) is becoming popular. Five soft silica gel samples with different stiffness are made. Piezoelectric sensors transform mechanical energy to an electrical signal via deformation of polarized piezoelectric materials sandwiched between two electrodes, and higher piezoelectric coefficient can effectively improve the sensitivity [ 10, 19, 20 ]. [. The limited degree of freedom (DOF) of the instrument causes the tactile sensor to become unable to be placed in the normal direction to contact the tissue surface, which may lead to lump undetectable. You seem to have javascript disabled. Definition of a Piezoelectric Sensor. In this paper, we present a novel flexible three-axial tactile sensor for detections of both normal compressive force and horizontal shear force by using imprinted P(VDF-TrFE) piezoelectric micropillars as the enhanced sensing layer. The frequency shift after the sensor touches the tissue can be expressed as [, Substituting Equation (1) into (2) finally obtains the relationship between the frequency shift Δ, The contact between the probe of the sensor and the tested tissue can be expressed as static contact and dynamic contact. This article is cited by Figure 1. Flexible Dome and Bump Shape Piezoelectric Tactile Sensors Using PVDF-TrFE Copolymer Abstract: In this paper, a new mold-transfer method to pattern piezoelectric polymer has been developed and applied to fabricate innovative dome and bump shape polyvinylidene-fluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) films. The first flexible substrate consists of a first surface facing the upper surface, a … Please reconnect, Authors & Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. These 50 stiffness test results (expressed in frequency shift) are imported into k-means clustering algorithm for automatic classification. The authors declare no conflict of interest. The softness of the center film determines sensitivity and the operating range of the sensor. One can see three significant a membrane-type piezoelectric tactile sensor with four sensing disadvantages with these designs: (i) Because of the high elements; the membrane is made of Polyvinylidene Fluoride number of sensing elements, unwanted response from (PVDF). Files available from the ACS website may be downloaded for personal use only. Since the lumps are often harder than the surrounding normal tissues, doctors can usually directly distinguish the lump by the difference in stiffness felt. Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. The outstanding feature of the sensor is that it can detect the stiffness and distinguish different stiffness samples not only in the normal direction, but also when there is a contact angle between probe and normal direction of tissue surface, solving the problem that when the DOF of surgical instruments is limited, the sensor cannot detect in normal direction. In order to verify the optimization effect and further optimize the length, In order to prove the ability of the optimized sensor to recognize samples with different stiffness when the contact angle is from 0° to 45°, five samples (the same as mentioned before) are used as the tested objects, comparing the blind recognition effect of the optimized sensor (, Based on simulation, an experiment is designed, a piezoelectric sensor is fabricated. In this paper, a piezoelectric tactile sensor for detecting tissue stiffness in RMIS is proposed, whose detection principle is based on the resonant frequency change of the system after making contact with the tissue. It can detect the stiffness not only when the probe is normal to the tissue surface, but also when there is a contact angle between the probe and normal direction. Piezoelectric sensor element will generate an output that activates a normally opened, built-in circuit. ; Schoukens, J.; Stroop, R. Improved tactile resonance sensor for robotic assisted surgery. Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID. Energy-Saving Piezo Haptic Driver is the Touch Sensor’s Best Friend. In order to prove the sensor’s ability to blindly recognize samples with different stiffness, the labels of the five samples are torn off and the order was disturbed. Find support for a specific problem on the support section of our website. ; Wurdemann, H.; Rhode, K.; Althoefer, K. Image-Based Optical Miniaturized Three-Axis Force Sensor for Cardiac Catheterization. The statements, opinions and data contained in the journals are solely 61973335, and No. w.wang 142 Parallel and serial connection Serial design sensor Parallel design ... virtual reality sensors • Tactile sensors . Every piezoelectric sensing unit has the area of 2 × 2 mm 2. The proposed sensor is sensitive within the stiffness range of samples used in tests, but the sensitivity can be further analyzed with a larger stiffness range with continuous values. 3 publications. The detailed parameters of the tactile sensor are described in Supporting information S2. In this paper, a piezoelectric tactile sensor for detecting tissue stiffness in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) is proposed. It makes the sensor insensitive to angle during detection, so as to meet the requirement of detecting stiffness in any posture. A model of the sensor and the tested samples was established, and the model was simulated in Ansys Workbench. Information. Please let us know what you think of our products and services. Which type of sensor is a tactile sensor. Errors: DESIGN SOLUTION 7124. Human‐Machine Interactions: Flexible 3D Architectured Piezo/Thermoelectric Bimodal Tactile Sensor Array for E‐Skin Application (Adv. Touch sensing is basically the process of detection and measurement of a contact force at a defined point. For sensor products, an isolation coating will be used for insulation and protection. The tactile sensors are developed to provide tactile sensing abilities for tele-operational manipulators and intelligent robots. For the contact angle aspect, subsequent study will focus on effectively compensating the influence of the contact angle on the sensor’s detection to obtain more accurate stiffness results. At the same time, the accuracy of stiffness identification is verified, proving that it has the potential to be used in interventional surgery with limited space. Development of new type tactile sensor for detecting hardness and/or softness of an object like the human hand. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsami.0c08560, http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html. It deduces the influence of contact angle on stiffness detection by sensor parameters design and optimization. Five samples with different stiffness (including lump and normal samples with close stiffness) are used. Aviles, A.I. Scalable tactile sensor arrays on flexible substrates with high spatiotemporal resolution enabling slip and grip for closed-loop robotics Hongseok Oh1, Gyu-Chul Yi2, Michael Yip1, Shadi A. Dayeh1,3* ... indicating that the piezoelectric charge changed the voltage required to form electron channel, effectively working as additional gate bias. [. the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. Herein, we report tactile sensor arrays and signal processing based on ZnO piezoelectric nanowires, which produce feelings of artificial psychological pain. Static contact means that a small force makes the probe contact the tissue at a certain indentation depth; dynamic contact means that an AC voltage is applied to the sensor which causes a small vibration between probe and tissue. This research is funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. C. H. Chuang [, So far, most tactile sensors in literature can detect the stiffness of tissue only when the contact is in the normal direction. Wenqing Ding, Lijun Lu, Yu Chen, Jingquan Liu, Bin Yang. A flexible piezoelectric tactile sensor having a piezoelectric thin film, a first flexible substrate, a second flexible substrate, and at least one elastic body is revealed. The sample recognition rate of the optimized sensor is 100% when the contact angle is selected randomly within 30° (including in the normal direction) in simulation, 94.1% within 45° (92% in experiment), which is 38.7% higher than the unoptimized sensor. Please refer the link to know more about the piezoelectric effect. Through blind classification test and automatic k-means clustering in experiment, the correct rate is 92% when the contact angle is randomly selected within 45°. In the secondary side, the viscous loss is equivalent to the resistance, When the sensor system contacts the tissue, the part of the tissue contacted can be equivalent to resistance. Conceptualization, Y.Z. Piezoelectric sensors have dynamic response and high bandwidth; The following section will discuss the disadvantages of different tactile sensors: Resistive sensors have high power consumption and will generally only detect single contact point, and do not measure contact force An important application of piezoelectric materials is for tactile sensing. Pengfei Zhao, Ruimin Zhang, Yanhong Tong, Xiaoli Zhao, Tao Zhang, Qingxin Tang. However, for measuring the stiffness of object with a large anisotropy factor and Poisson’s ratio, the contact between the sensor and tissue can be approximated by static contact [, When the sensor’s DOF is limited, it cannot detect tissue in the normal direction but at angle, It can be seen from Equation (6) that if the depth Δ is maintained at a constant value, the larger the angle, It can be seen from the Equation (7) that the stiffness of the tested tissue is proportional to the frequency shift. You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley! Concept, Implementation and Analysis of the Piezoelectric Resonant Sensor/Actuator for Measuring the Aging Process of Human Skin. Abstract In this paper, a piezoelectric tactile sensor for detecting tissue stiffness in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) is proposed. Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library. Li, T.; Pan, A.; Ren, H. Reaction Force Mapping by 3-Axis Tactile Sensing with Arbitrary Angles for Tissue Hard-inclusion Localization. Set the sweep range in the harmonic response analysis to be near the system resonance frequency. Since force initiates a voltage across the crystal, any force can be converted into an electrical signal which a microcontroller can use to make something happen. Librarians & Account Managers. The piezoelectric thin film includes an upper surface and a lower surface while the first flexible substrate is disposed on the upper surface of the piezoelectric thin film. College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China. Three-dimensional (3D) force tactile electronic skin sensor based on CNTs/PDMS nanocompositions exhibited high sensitivity, good consistency and fast response. A new flexible piezoelectric tactile sensor array based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film is proposed for measuring three-axis dynamic contact force distribution. School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191 China. ; Hahn, J.K.; Casals, A. Yalong Wang. Compared with traditional surgery, doctors cannot touch tissue directly in RMIS, which may cause misdiagnosis or wrong resection. Li, M. Experimental Study and Numerical Simulation on Grasping Behavior between Fenestrated Mis Grasper and Soft Tissue. After each test is completed, each sample is shuffled for the next test, repeating 50 times. Energy-Saving Piezo Haptic Driver is the Touch Sensor’s Best Friend. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. Strain-Discriminable Pressure/Proximity Sensing of Transparent Stretchable Electronic Skin Based on PEDOT:PSS/SWCNT Electrodes. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric.com with additional details about the score and the social media presence for the given article. In Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Vancouver, Canada, 24–28 September 2017; pp. The resonance frequency of the un-load sensor is 137.6 Hz, which is approximately the same as the simulation result. The American Chemical Society holds a copyright ownership interest in any copyrightable Supporting In addition, the mechanical strength of PVDF/BaTiO3 nanocomposites is up to 26.7 MPa, which is an increase of 66% compared to neat PVDF. Vision is sometimes asserted to be the most important human sensory modality perhaps underestimating the role of the sense of touch. The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal, © 1996-2021 MDPI (Basel, Switzerland) unless otherwise stated. In order to test the optimized sensor performance, a simulation and an experiment are designed. If a circuit is activated, then it … & Account Managers, For 4(c). The addition (5, 10, and 20 wt %) of piezoelectric BaTiO3 NPs improves the piezoelectric performance, especially the β phase crystals of PVDF/BaTiO3 (10 wt %) nanocomposites that can reach 91.0%. 99–106. Enhanced Energy Harvesting Ability of ZnO/PAN Hybrid Piezoelectric Nanogenerators. [. Yue Sun, Yong Liu, Yide Zheng, Zongjie Li, Jie Fan, Liang Wang, Xuqing Liu, Jian Liu. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based piezoelectric materials are promising candidates for sensors, transducers, and actuators, due to several distinctive characteristics such as good flexibility, easy processability, and high mechanical resistance. With the help of haptics, the tactile feedback technology that exploits the sense of touch by applying forces, vibrations, or motions to the … Find more information about Crossref citation counts. ; Bajo, A.; Simaan, N. Algorithms for autonomous exploration and estimation in compliant environments. The resonance frequency of the system shifts due to the change which can be measured. w.wang 149 MEMS devices-inkjet printer head (ZnO ultrasound device) Micromachined Acoustic-Wave Liquid Ejector W. … Whereas, tactile However, most MIS procedures are performed in a confined space such as the transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBt) and uterine fibroid embolization (UFE). Omata, Y.S. Master’s Thesis, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China, 2015. 906–913. without permission from the American Chemical Society. Additionally, to further test the performance of the sensor, the sensor will be attached to the end of the surgical robot and a porcine bladder will be used. It can be seen that the proposed sensor is hardly affected by angle when detecting stiffness. The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsami.0c08560. INTRODUCTION Touch and tactile sensors are devices which measure the parameters of contact between the sensor and an object. The proposed sensor is used to randomly detect a sample with a contact angle within 45°. Tactile sensors are of different types, they can be piezoresistive, piezoelectric, capacitive or elastoresistive sensors. [, There are many kinds of tactile sensors that can be used to detect force and stiffness. A tactile sensor is a device that measures information arising from physical interaction with its environment. Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Tian, J.; Xie, Z. In the present work, PVDF-based nanocomposites loaded with BaTiO3 nanoparticles (NPs) of various weight fractions were prepared by the electrospinning technique and used for the fabrication of a flexible piezoelectric pressure tactile sensor (PPTS). The proposed senor can distinguish samples with different stiffness and recognize lump from normal tissue effectively when the contact angle varies within [0°, 45°]. For permission to reproduce, republish and Digest of Technical Papers, San Francisco, CA, USA, 24–27 June 1991. The sensitivity of sensor is determined using ((ΔI/I 0)/ΔP), where ΔP is the change in pressure and is calculated to be 4.55 × 10 −3 kPa −1 for a given pressure range as shown in Fig. Diameter of BaTiO3 NPs, fabrication of pressure sensors, viscosity and conductivity, typical stress–strain curves, values of the ultimate tensile strength and elongation at break, and XRD diffraction patterns (PDF). A Robust Uniaxial Force Sensor for Minimally Invasive Surgery. The actual stiffness measured by the 00-type hardness tester is shown in. Lv, C.; Wang, S.; Shi, C. A High-Precision and Miniature Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Force Sensor for Tissue Palpation During Minimally Invasive Surgery. Please note that many of the page functionalities won't work as expected without javascript enabled. Piezoelectric crystals make excellent tactile sensors (devices that need to know if physical contact is established). Yip, M.C. We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience. system. The stiffness of samples consistent with the simulation. In order to know the relationship between stiffness and contact angle, This paper proposes a piezoelectric bimorph tactile sensor, and the structure is shown in, Due to the inverse piezoelectric effect, applying an AC voltage in the polarization direction of the PZT (as shown in, The electromechanical coupling is represented as an ideal transformer, the primary side represents the pure dielectric characteristics of the system, and the secondary side reflects the mechanical characteristics. It has the advantages of small trauma, quick recovery and high accuracy. A Piezoelectric Tactile Sensor and Human-inspired Tactile Exploration Strategy for Lump Palpation in Tele-operative Robotic Minimally Invasive Surgery. The detection model with a contact angle is proposed in, A piezoelectric sensor is preliminarily designed, and the sensing principle explains how the sensor works. Tactile sensors based on ZnO piezoelectric materials have several advantages, such as being self-powered, highly sensitive, high resolution, multi-touch availability, and simple design. 551–555. Li, L.; Yu, B.; Yang, C.; Vagdargi, P.; Srivatsan, R.A.; Choset, H. Development of an inexpensive tri-axial force sensor for minimally invasive surgery. [. In Proceedings of the TRANSDUCERS’91: 1991 International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators. Because the system impedance will change suddenly at the resonance frequency, the frequency-impedance curve is used to record the resonance frequency, and then subtract with the no-load (before contacting the sample) resonance frequency to obtain the frequency shift Δ. Sensor sensitivity refers to the ratio between the resonant frequency shift and the change in stiffness of the tissue, which determines the effective detection range of the sensor. In Proceedings of the 2019 20th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems & Eurosensors XXXIII (TRANSDUCERS & EUROSENSORS XXXIII), Berlin, Germany, 23–27 June 2019; pp. In Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE 13th International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics (SACI), Timisoara, Romania, 29–31 May 2019; pp. It should be emphasized that the elongation at break continuously increases from 71% to 153% with increasing BaTiO3 NPs. Bandari, N.; Dargahi, J.; Packirisamy, M. Tactile Sensors for Minimally Invasive Surgery: A Review of the State-of-the-Art, Applications, and Perspectives. The sensor system’s resonance frequency shift is proportional to the stiffness of the tested tissue and is negatively related to the contact angle. It can detect the stiffness not only when the probe is normal to the tissue surface, but also when there is a contact angle between the probe and normal direction. Each random detection process includes randomly selecting a sample of unknown stiffness, randomly selecting a point on this sample (the sample stiffness is uniform), and testing the stiffness of this point at a random contact angle. Tactile sensors are generally modeled after the biological sense of cutaneous touch which is capable of detecting stimuli resulting from mechanical stimulation, temperature, and pain (although pain sensing is not common in artificial tactile sensors). and F.J.; Methodology, Y.Z. The development of piezoelectric three-axial tactile sensors with high sensitivity and good flexibility with a low cost still remains a challenge. Finite element analyses further explain the thermal harvesting performance of the sensor. and F.J.; Writing—original draft, Y.Z., F.J., X.W., D.W. and Y.W. Search for more papers by this author. It provides information about forces of interaction and surface properties at points of contact between the robot fingers and the objects. Piezoelectric Sensors They can be designed with piezoelectric films, such as Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) used in active or passive modes. Omata, S.; Murayama, Y.; Constantinou, C.E. http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html. Towards Retrieving Force Feedback in Robotic-Assisted Surgery: A Supervised Neuro-Recurrent-Vision Approach. After the sensor touches the tested tissue, the impedance of the system changes. Real time robotic tactile sensor system for the determination of the physical properties of biomaterials. We can get the proposed sensor can easily recognize samples with different stiffness with high accuracy which has broad application prospects in the medical field. tactile sensor; piezoelectric sensor; stiffness detection; arbitrary contact angle, Laser-Tissue Tissue Interactions Fundamentals and Applications, Help us to further improve by taking part in this short 5 minute survey, Switching from Multiplex to Multimodal Colorimetric Lateral Flow Immunosensor, Global Positioning System Analysis of Physical Demands in Small and Large-Sided Games with Floaters and Official Matches in the Process of Return to Play in High Level Soccer Players, A Non-Array Type Cut to Shape Soft Slip Detection Sensor Applicable to Arbitrary Surface, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, Nagy, T.D. Not all materials have … The stiffness palpation method proposed in [, This paper proposes a piezoelectric tactile sensor that can not only detect the stiffness when the probe is normal to the tissue surface, but also when there is a contact angle relative to the normal direction. w.wang 141 Piezoelectric effect (actuator) Applied electric potential results in a deformation. ; Terunuma, Y. Ph.D Thesis, University of Toulouse, Toulouse, France, 2016. Where piezoelectricity is a phenomenon where electricity is generated if mechanical stress is applied to a material. The article teaches against row by column reading involving multiplexing. In Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO), Dali, China, 6–8 December 2019; pp. ; Alsaleh, S.M. 51705243), and Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province under Grant BK20191272 and BK20170789. A sensor which works on the principle of piezoelectricity is known as a piezoelectric sensor. Through theoretical analysis, the principle of sensing and the stiffness detection method with a contact angle are obtained. Arrays of the actuators can be integrated into a garment or wearable and be individually addressed and commanded using a low-power and low-wire count bus topology developed by Piezo.com. When the angle changes from 0° to 45°, samples with different stiffness can be clearly distinguished. Although the sensor has been well verified in this study, there are still some areas that need to be improved. ; Haidegger, T. Recent Advances in Robot-Assisted Surgery: Soft Tissue Contact Identification. Information about how to use the RightsLink permission system can be found at Certainly, losing the capabilities offered by touch can cause catastrophic impairments to posture, locomotion and control of limbs, extraction of object properties and in general to any physical interaction with the environment (Robles-De-La-Torre, 2006). Sharma, S.; Aguilera, R.; Rao, J.; Gimzewski, J.K. Piezoelectric needle sensor reveals mechanical heterogeneity in human thyroid tissue lesions. A touch sensor can also be restricted to binary information, namely touch and no touch. Chuang, C.-H.; Li, T.-H.; Chou, I.-C.; Teng, Y.-J. All of these. These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. The classification result is shown in. In order to test the sensor performance on distinguishing different stiffness samples with arbitrary contact angle, effect of optimization and blind recognition ability, simulation is designed. Piezoelectric effect (sensor) External force results in a electric potential. [, Guan, L.; Weng, L.; Zhang, X.; Wu, Z.; Li, Q.; Liu, L. Microstructures, electrical behavior and energy storage properties of, Lukasz, K.S. The array consists of six tactile units arranged as a 3 × 2 matrix with spacing 8 mm between neighbor units. The method of achieving stiffness detection and lump identification under multiple constraints is particularly important. Tactile sensors are used in robotics, computer hardware and security systems. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Tactile sensing is an essential element of autonomous dexterous robot hand manipulation. Dynamic contact stiffness of vibrating rigid sphere contacting semi-infinite transversely isotropic viscoelastic solid. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Noh, Y.; Liu, H.; Sareh, S.; Chathuranga, D.S. More importantly, the PPTS (piezoelectric pressure tactile sensor) with the combination of electrospun PVDF/BaTiO 3 nanocomposite membranes and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) displays excellent flexibility and linear response to external mechanical force. Effects of Stiffness on Biological Behavior of Tumor Cells. Tactile sensors can identify a normal force applied to the tactile pixels for mesmerizing the force control and the tactile images and to generate object recognition. This tactile sensor, capable of measuring magnitude adjacent elements is often experienced, also known as and … The sensor sensitivity is higher than that of the other reported tactile sensors as summarized in Table I. Since response stability and reproducibility has historically limited the utility of piezoelectric-based tactile sensors 1,3-5,18,24,28-33!, a pre-charge stabilization voltage bias cycle is incorporated as part of the overall tactile sensor system, and is used to impress a short-duration (e.g., 0.1 second), low-level, direct current bias voltage (e.g., V bias =2.5 V) between the upper and lower electrodes of the PVDF film and … Nagatom, T.; Miki, N. A Flexible Tactile Sensor to Detect Stiffness Distribution without Measuring Displacement. More importantly, the PPTS (piezoelectric pressure tactile sensor) with the combination of electrospun PVDF/BaTiO3 nanocomposite membranes and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) displays excellent flexibility and linear response to external mechanical force. Electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. A sandwich structure for flexible tactile sensor consists of top and bottom soft substrates made of … Flexible piezoelectric tactile sensor with structural electrodes array for shape recognition system Abstract: This study provides an efficient and feasible solution to enhance the sensitivity of traditional piezoelectric tactile sensor based on introducing structural electrode upon the sensing material. [. Energy Mater. A promising strategy for low-cost multi-functional detection in human body monitoring and intelligent robot grasping applications was provided. It can detect the stiffness not only when the probe is normal to the tissue surface, but also when there is a contact angle between the probe and normal direction. The parameters of the sensor are optimized to minimalize the influence of angle on stiffness. Users are The sensitivity of the proposed tactile sensor is 134.11 HZ/MPa in the range from 0.045 Mpa to 0.649 Mpa. The sensor transforms pressure and temperature stimuli into two independent electrical signals without interference, exhibiting high temperature sensing sensitivity (109.4 µV K −1) with rapid response time (0.37 s) and superior pressure sensing sensitivity over a wide range (100 Pa to 20 kPa). It solves the problem that existing sensors can only detect in the normal direction to ensure accuracy when the degree of freedom (DOF) of surgical instruments is limited. [. It signifies that the stiffness detection is no longer restricted by space and DOF, and that the sensor can detect tumors in any posture with high accuracy. The detection performance of the sensor is confirmed by simulation and experiment. The flexible PPTS devices capable of detecting different music sounds have potential uses in wide fields, such as voice recognition, speech therapy, and ultrasound imaging. In this paper, a piezoelectric tactile sensor for detecting tissue stiffness in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) is proposed. A piezoelectric disk generates a voltage when deformed (change in shape is greatly exaggerated) A piezoelectric sensor is a device that uses the piezoelectric effect to measure changes in pressure, acceleration, temperature, strain, or force by converting them to an electrical charge.