As the American anthropologist and historian Richard Price has written, the persistence of Maroon communities for decades or centuries stands out as a "heroic challenge to white authority, and the living proof of the existence of a slave consciousness that refused to be limited" by the dominant white culture. often initial capital letter) any of a group of Black people, descended from fugitive slaves of the 17th and 18th centuries, living in the West Indies and Guiana, especially in mountainous areas. The most famous of such settlements was Quilombo dos Palmares, in the northeastern part of Brazil. It became larger than any of the North American communities, including over 200 houses, a church, four smithies, a six-foot-wide main street, a large meeting house, cultivated fields, and kingly residences. A larger one measured 700x120 yards and included 21 houses and cropland, accommodating up to 200 people. Continued survival of a maroon … Scholars generally distinguish two kinds of marronage, though there is overlap between them. Maroon is considered a formal, sumptuous and classic color. Definition of maroon_3 verb in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Members of the maroon community participating in a “beautiful boat” competition at a festival in Suriname. NAmE / / məˈrun / / [usually passive] maroon somebody Verb Forms present simple I / you / we / they maroon. [John Gabriel Stedman, Narrative, of a Five Years’ Expedition, against the revolted Negroes of Surinam … from the year 1772, to 1777 (London, 1796), vol. Many maroons survived only because family members back on the plantation secretly helped to provide for them. The existence of maroons and the mere possibility of marronage mark a limit to white supremacist hegemony. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? 2. transitive verb [usu passive] If someone is marooned somewhere, they are left in a place that is difficult for them to escape from. A fugitive black slave in the West Indies in the 1600s and 1700s. There was a constant influx of newly enslaved Africans during the 18th century, and during the 1780s, fully one-third of the 100,000 enslaved workers in South Carolina had been born in Africa. NAmE / / m@"ru:n IN / / jump to other results. It is said that only their memory resides in Ghana. Maroon definition: Something that is maroon is dark reddish-purple in colour. maroon (plural maroons) . In Brazil the Africans set up settlements known as Quilombos. Throughout the colonial Americas, runaway slaves were called "Maroons." Most returned voluntarily, hungry and cold, back to friends and family, or were hunted down by parties of overseers and dogs. Long-term marronage communities were established in Brazil (Palmares, Ambrosio), Dominican Republic (Jose Leta), Florida (Pilaklikaha and Fort Mose), Jamaica (Bannytown, Accompong, and Seaman's Valley), and Suriname (Kumako). 2 capitalized : a fugitive black slave of the West Indies and Guiana in the 17th and 18th centuries also : a descendant of such a slave. The history of the Maroons, from their origin to the establishment of their chief tribe at Sierra Leone, including the expedition to Cuba for the purpose of procuring Spanish chasseurs and the state of the island of Jamaica for the last ten years with a succinct history of the island previous to that period.. The English word Maroon comes from Spanish cimarrón, itself based on a Ta í no Indian root. en.wiktionary.org. Updates? Such groups often raided colonial settlements and plantations for commodities and new recruits. What happened to the African slaves in the Americas that managed to escape their masters? In the 18th century Jamaican Maroons fought two wars against the British settlers, both of which ended with treaties affirming the independence of the Maroons. The origin of the Spanish word cimarrón is unknown. Third-person singular simple present indicative form of maroon Save 30% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Total Maroon populations are unknown, but between 1732 and 1801, enslavers advertised for more than 2,000 self-liberated people in South Carolina newspapers. Prezi Video + Unsplash: Access over two million images to tell your story through video Maroon communities also existed in Brazil and Mexico. "Short-term fugitives" would be returned to their enslavers for punishment, but "long-term fugitives" from enslavement—those who had been away for 12 months or longer—could be lawfully killed by any white person. Maroon refers to an African or Afro-American person who freed themself from enslavement in the Americas and lived in hidden towns outside of the plantations. The English, who invaded the island in 1655, … It is important to note that most Africans did not refer to themselves as “maroons.” They usually opted for liberatory, powerful names such as “Nyankipong Pickibu,” which means “Children of the Almighty” in Twi, a language widely spoken in Ghana, West Africa. An escaped negro slave of the Caribbean and the Americas or a descendant of escaped slaves. History. Jamaican Maroons descend from maroons, Africans who escaped from slavery on the Colony of Jamaica and established free communities in the mountainous interior, primarily in the eastern parishes.Escaped Africans who were enslaved during Spanish rule over Jamaica (1493–1656) may have been the first to develop such refugee communities.. The first is that it memorializes and pays tribute to one of their last visions of home, the West African coast of the same name that was traversed by the newly enslaved Africans en route to the ship that would transport them to the west. In the 18th century, a small Maroon settlement in South Carolina included four houses in a square measuring 17x14 feet. Maroon can be produced with red+black meaning it is a shade of red. It is further believed that the word cimarrón is from cima or “summit.”. Find definitions for: ma•roon. Although the Maroons did help others to self-liberate, kept in touch with family members, and traded with the enslaved plantation workers, the Maroons sometimes resorted to raiding the cabins of these workers for food and supplies. They appeared in all colonies where slavery was introduced and the struggle against them has been particularly well chronicled. The largest known Maroon communities in what would become the U.S. were formed in the Great Dismal Swamp on the Savannah River, on the border between Virginia and North Carolina. The word maroon, first recorded in English in 1666, is by varying accounts taken from the French word marron, which translates to “runaway black slave,” or the American/Spanish cimarrón, which means “wild runaway slave,” “the beast who cannot be tamed,” or “living on mountaintops.” The Spanish originally used the word in reference to their stray cattle. Cookies help us deliver our services. This inspired the Asante people to take a sacred oath that empowered them to rise up and put down the Koromanti uprising. Palmares in Brazil was a maroon community of people originally from Angola that lasted for nearly a century, essentially an African state. What Were the Top 4 Causes of the Civil War? Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Our histories are corrected and retold as American history without our consent and in an inclusion that we, by definition, have worked to escape. To survive, the American maroons reinvented themselves, defied slave society, enforced their own definition of freedom and dared create their own alternative to what the country had delineated as being black men and women’s proper place. In Brazil, Cuba, and Jamaica, people escaped into the mountains and made their homes in densely vegetated hills. Navigation. See more. ( often cap.) Blog. In a book that is easily accessible yet rigorously researched, analyzed, and argued, Diouf has made a compelling case that scholars of slavery and of early American history must consider the presence of maroons in the U.S. with a sense of renewed urgency. See more. This book gives a great account of what life was like for maroons and the author debunks many of the myths that surround maroons and slavery. Maroon is a word that refers to African or African-American people who freed themselves from enslavement and lived in communities outside of plantations. The term “maroons” refers to people who escaped slavery to create independent groups and communities on the outskirts of slave societies. Maroon (US / UK / məˈruːn / mə-ROON, Australia / məˈroʊn / mə-ROHN) is a dark brownish red or dark reddish color that takes its name from the French word marron, or chestnut. Many Maroon communities started out as nomadic, moving base often for safety's sake, but as their populations grew, they settled into fortified villages. The self-liberated people in North America were predominantly young and male, who had often been sold many times. An African-style system of status, birthrights, enslavement, and royalty was developed at Palmares, and adapted traditional African ceremonial rites were performed. The new communities maintained difficult relationships with the enslaved workers left behind on the plantations. noun (often initial capital letter) any of a group of Black people, descended from fugitive slaves of the 17th and 18th centuries, living in the West Indies and Guiana, especially in mountainous areas. Most were short-lived, in fact, 70% of the largest quilombos in Brazil were destroyed within two years. In Cuba, villages made up of freedom seekers were known as palenques or mambises; and in Brazil, they were known as quilombo, magote, or mocambo. Diouf has scoured archives across the United States, examining accounts of fugitives throughout the Slave South to uncover the hidden history of American maroons, and produced a highly readable, original study that deserves a broad scholarly and popular audience. NAmE / / m@"ru:n z / / past simple marooned. Third-person singular simple present indicative form of maroon; Anagrams . Legally sanctioned or not, the communities were ubiquitous wherever people were enslaved. maroon: Meaning and Definition of. The Spanish called these free slaves "Maroons," a word derived from "Cimarron," which means "fierce" or "unruly." Houses were located on the highest elevations; pens were built, fences maintained, and wells dug. Most Maroon communities were formed in inaccessible or marginal areas, partly because those areas were unpopulated, and partly because they were difficult to get to. "Over more than two centuries men, women, and children escaped from slavery to make the Southern wilderness their home. "Marron" is also one of the French translations for "brown". Learn more. According to legend, the Koromanti name continues to ring in the maroon communities for one of two traditional reasons. It functioned successfully as an independent republic of the maroons in the 17th century, following an African pattern of social organization. The alternative explanation is that the appellation represents the memory of the Koromanti clan, a subgroup of the Asante people of Ghana. Some of the Jamaican and Suriname Maroon communities founded in the 18th century are still occupied by their descendants today. This town's people grew domesticated rice and potatoes and raised cows, pigs, turkeys, and ducks. Equally important to her definition, maroons were no longer under the control of slave masters or overseers. https://www.britannica.com/topic/maroon-community, National Park Service - Network to Freedom - Maroon Slave Society, Central American and northern Andean Indian. Maroon societies were bands of communities or fugitive slaves who had succeeded in establishing a society of their own in some remote areas, where they could not easily be surprised by soldiers or slave catchers. In some regions and for some periods, the communities held treaties with other colonists and were recognized as legitimate, independent, and autonomous bodies with rights to their lands. Estimates for Palmares in Brazil range between 5,000 and 20,000. To abandon or isolate with little hope of ready rescue or escape: The travelers were marooned by the blizzard. Pronunciation: (mu-rn'), — v.t. The first recorded use of maroon as a color name in English was in 1789. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, How Black Seminoles Found Freedom From Enslavement in Florida, 3 Major Ways Enslaved People Showed Resistance to a Life in Bondage, Essential Facts About the South Carolina Colony, The Untold History of Native American Enslavement, Impact of the Stono Rebellion on the Lives of Enslaved People, 5 Classic and Heartbreaking Narratives by Enslaved People, Frederick Douglass: Formerly Enslaved Man and Abolitionist Leader, The Debate Over Reparations for Enslavement in the United States, Biography of Denmark Vesey, Led an Unsuccessful Revolt by Enslaved People, The Black Codes and Why They Still Matter Today. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples They often mixed with indigenous peoples, eventually evolving into separate creole cultures such as the Garifuna and the Mascogos. Maroon community, a group of formerly enslaved Africans and their descendants who gained their freedom by fleeing chattel enslavement and running to the safety and cover of the remote mountains or the dense overgrown tropical terrains near the plantations. This history, as previously mentioned, is a source of pride which forms the continuing definition of identity. Ethnomedicinal Survey of a Maroon Community in Brazil's Atlantic Tropical Forest, Genome-Wide Ancestry and Demographic History of African-Descendant Maroon Communities from French Guiana and Suriname, Maroon and Slave Communities in South Carolina before 1865, Mancala in Surinamese Maroon Communities: The Expedition of Melville J. Herskovits. verb. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership - Now 30% off. Learn more. … At its apex, it was the home and refuge of some 20,000 African men, women, and children who had managed to escape the dreadful experience of plantation life. There are divergent accounts as to the earliest maroons, with some even indicating that the first maroon was a solitary African who escaped from the first slave ship to dock in the Americas in 1502, just 10 years after Columbus’s arrival. Even after they were set up, the embryonic Maroon towns had limited opportunities for building families. maroon definition: 1. a dark reddish-purple colour 2. having a dark reddish-purple colour: 3. to leave someone in a…. 2. Audacious, self-confident, autonomous, sometimes self-sufficient, always self-governing; their very existence was a repudiation of the basic tenets of slavery. To survive, the American maroons reinvented themselves, defied slave society, enforced their own definition of freedom and dared create their own alternative to what the country had delineated as being black men and women's proper place. Buy The History of the Maroons, From Their Origin to the Establishment of Their Chief Tribe at Sierra Leone (Volume 1); Including the Expedition to Cuba ... of the Island of Jamaica for the Last Ten Yea by Robert Charles Dallas (ISBN: 9781154420531) from Amazon's Book Store. They hid in the mountains of Virginia and the low swamps of South Carolina; they stayed in the neighborhood or paddled their way to secluded places; they buried themselves underground or built comfortable settlements. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Many of the groups are found in the Caribbean and, in general, throughout the Americas. By the late 1500s, there were already Maroon villages in Panama and Brazil, and Kumako in Suriname was established at least as early as the 1680s. Throughout the colonial Americas, runaway slaves were called "Maroons." Her work has appeared in scholarly publications such as Archaeology Online and Science. Maroon towns nearly always had several security measures. Mansoor, ... History; More. Cimarr ó n originally referred to domestic cattle that had taken to the hills in Hispaniola, and soon after to American Indian slaves who had escaped from the Spaniards. The size of Maroon communities varied widely. The most successful Maroon settlement was Palmares in Brazil, established about 1605. [from 17th c.] 1985, Wade Davis, The Serpent and the Rainbow, Simon & Schuster, p. 193: Further north a Maroon community in the Bahoruco Mountains thrived for eighty-five years, until the French proposed a truce under the terms of which the Maroons would be permitted to … n. 3. The Maroons originated as a semi-pro football team known as the Toledo Athletic Association, in 1902.The Association formed the Toledo Maroons in 1906 as a farm team for teenagers who could later move up to playing for the Association's senior team. K. Kris Hirst is an archaeologist with 30 years of field experience. 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