Arguing that the Baddeley and Hitch (1974) model simplified perceptual processing of information presentation to the working memory store without considering the focus of attention to the stimuli presented, Cowan (2005, 2010) stressed the pivotal and central roles of working memory capacity for understanding the working memory concept. Investigation of information flow during a novel working memory task in individuals with traumatic brain injury. Sex steroids modify working memory. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570394.003.0004, Barrouillet, P., Gavens, N., Vergauwe, E., Gaillard, V., and Camos, V. (2009). It was not until 2000 that another component termed “episodic buffer” was introduced into this working memory model (Baddeley, 2000a). Neuropsychologia 41, 1599–1610. Indeed, more than a century of scientific studies revolving around memory in the fields of psychology, biology, or neuroscience have not completely agreed upon a unified categorization of memory, especially in terms of its functions and mechanisms (Cowan, 2005, 2008; Baddeley, 2010). Psychol. It has been argued (e.g., Wu, Cristino, Leek, & Thierry, 2013) that a bilingual's two languages are activated even if they are using just one language, and so they have to focus their attention on the target language. Effective connectivity describes the attempt to model causal influence of neuronal connections in order to better understand the hidden neuronal states underlying detected neuronal responses (Friston et al., 2013). In 2000, post-menopausal women undergoing hormone replacement therapy, specifically estrogen, were found to have better working memory performance in comparison with women who took estrogen and progestin or women who did not receive the therapy (Duff and Hampson, 2000). Moreover, other factors such as the relationship between fluid intelligence and working memory might complicate the current understanding of working memory as a single, isolated construct since working memory is often implied in measurements of the intelligence quotient (Cowan, 2008; Vartanian et al., 2013). Short and long-term memory suggest that the difference between the two lies in the period that the encoded information is retained. As for the WCST, participants are asked to match a response card popped out with one of the four stimulus cards on the screen. Additional measures can provide a more detailed assessment of the nature of working memory deficits. |, An Embedded-Processes Model of Working Memory, Traumatic Brain Injury and Working Memory, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). From the neuroscience perspective, it has been established that working memory activates the fronto-parietal brain regions, including the prefrontal, cingulate, and parietal cortices. From their study on timing judgments, Perbal et al. 10, 724–741. Working memory. (2013). Contributions from this system, which operates best with conceptually meaningful stimuli and when there is little interference from items repeating across trials (Konkle, Brady, Alvarez, & Oliva, 2010; Wickens, Born, & Allen, 1963; Wiseman & Neisser, 1974), are thought to be minimal in working memory tasks that use simple, meaningless stimuli. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.12.060, Wang, S., and Gathercole, S. E. (2013). It has been established that verbal and acoustic information activates Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas while visuospatial information is represented in the right hemisphere (Baddeley, 2000b). Psychol. Modern consensus gauges the central capacity limit of human working memory at about three to five pieces of information (Cowan, 2010). There is so much students need to know, after all. Furthermore, comparing the working memory between TBI, MDD, TBI-MDD, and healthy participants discovered that groups with MDD and TBI-MDD performed poorer on the Sternberg working memory task but functional connectivity on the other hand, showed that increased inter-hemispheric working memory gamma connectivity was observed in the TBI and TBI-MDD groups (Bailey et al., 2017). This finding subsequently demonstrated the results of emotional effects on working memory performance in older adults (Oren et al., 2017). For example, when studying the neural patterns of working memory based on Cowan’s processes-embedded model using fMRI, one has to ensure that the working memory task selected is fMRI-compatible, and demands executive control of attention directed at activated long-term memory (domain-specific). Another strategy to reduce WM load is to avoid arbitrary numbers and letters (e.g., part numbers) and limit each chunk to three or four numbers. doi: 10.1002/brb3.608, Perbal, S., Couillet, J., Azouvi, P., and Pouthas, V. (2003). Working memory capacity as executive attention. Data clearly indicate that people who ruminate have greater difficulties discarding negative thoughts and memories from working memory as they become irrelevant. doi: 10.1007/s002130051047, Reuter-Lorenz, P. A., and Cappell, K. A. Does processing speed mediate the effect of pediatric traumatic brain injury on working memory? Andersen, R. A., and Cui, H. (2009). Like attention and executive functions, working memory has a significant influence in cognitive efficiency, learning, and academic performance. Review intention, action planning, and decision making in parietal-frontal circuits. In fact, studies on cerebellar lesions subsequently discovered that patients suffered from impairments in attention-related working memory or executive functions, suggesting that in spite of the motor functions widely attributed to the cerebellum, the cerebellum is also involved in higher-order cognitive functions including working memory (Gottwald et al., 2004; Ziemus et al., 2007). Her skill at recognizing, recalling, and reciting letters and numbers is in the low average range relative to other young people her age. Indeed, Ashkenazi et al. (2011). doi: 10.1016/S1364-6613(03)00056-1, Baddeley, A. Instead, with every increase of the working memory load, increase in brain activation, as expected to occur and as demonstrated in the control group, was unable to be detected in the TBI group (Chen et al., 2012). Each task consists of three types of stimulus conditions: congruent, incongruent and neutral. Psychol. Can we understand this in well-controlled experiments where we can build computational models and understand the memory representations participants form? 11, 19–23. (2015). Baddeley and Hitch (1974) proposed a working memory model that revolutionized the rigid and dichotomous view of memory as being short or long-term, although the term “working memory” was first introduced by Miller et al. Hum. The central executive component allocates cognitive resources, focuses attention that is needed to solve problems, and controls cognitive interference (Baddeley, 2012; Baddeley, Eysenck, & Anderson, 2009). In clinical situations in which the visual modality is impaired, the AWMI allows better evaluation of working memory functions than the WMI. This fed into a separate long-term store holding vast amounts of information over longer time intervals. 8, 446–459. The nature of working memory implies we should make an effort to resist that urge and focus our energies only on the most central concepts and skills. Brain 134, 1555–1570. (2011), elevated task-related connectivity in the right hemisphere, in particular the prefrontal cortex, was consistently demonstrated during a working memory task while the control group showed greater left hemispheric activation. JA supervised the process and proofread the manuscript. 19, 450–466. Nevertheless, inconsistent findings should not be neglected. Abnormal prefrontal and parietal activity linked to deficient active binding in working memory in schizophrenia. Depress. We present the Working Memory Graph (WMG), an agent that employs multi-head self-attention to reason … (2017) in which differential functional networks relating to emotional working memory task were employed by the two studied groups: (1) younger (Mage = 22.6) and (2) older (Mage = 68.2) adults. Not all cognitive training programs are equal. As it happens, this provided evidence from the neurobiological viewpoint to support Cowan’s theorized idea of “activated long-term memory” being a feature of working memory as non-cued past items in working memory that were assumed to be no longer accessible were actually stored in a latent state and could be brought back into consciousness. From the coining of th… A spiking working memory model based on hebbian short-term potentiation. Our working memory is severely limited in both capacity (the amount of information it can hold) and duration. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X01003922, Cowan, N. (2005). Psychol. (2012). 7:e00608. Research connections. TABLE 1. Different ways to cue a coherent memory system: a theory for episodic, semantic, and procedural tasks. A central tenet of the model is that underlying heritable etiological factors such as slowed nerve growth factors and correspondingly reduced neurotransmitter functioning result in neural structure and functional deficits, respectively. This might be suggestive of the potential of cognitive recovery simply by looking at the intensity of brain activation of the DMN, for an increase in activation of the DMN seemed to be superseded before cognitive recovery was present (Wylie et al., 2015). N. A. Pachana. As we saw in Chapter 2, Information Literacy: The What and How, we often feel tempted, or compelled, to squeeze a lot of information into each session. Cognitive tests such as Raven’s Progressive Matrices or other similar intelligence tests that demand complex cognition and were reported in the paper had been found to correlate strongly with tests of working memory (Kovacs and Conway, 2016). Investigating the supero-lateral medial forebrain bundle (MFB) that innervates and consequently terminates at the prefrontal cortex, microstructural white matter damage at the said area was indicated in participants with moderate to severe TBI by comparing its integrity with the control group (Owens et al., 2017). The task consists of “single-task blocks” in which participants are asked to judge on only one attribute of the stimuli throughout according to cues given at the beginning of a block, and “mixed-task blocks” in which participants are asked to judge on the color or the shape of each stimulus according to the cue given for the stimulus. 32, 703–728. doi: 10.1037/a0014296, Daneman, M., and Carpenter, P. A. In Understanding Working Memory: A Classroom Guide (2007), psychologists Gathercole and Alloway rep… Models of Working Memory: Mechanisms of Active Maintenance and Executive Control. Instead of holding relevant information through heightened and persistent neuronal firing, residual calcium at the presynaptic terminals was suggested to have mediated the working memory process (Mongillo et al., 2008). Finally, Chapter 13 by Bender and Beller discusses how numeration systems that differ by modality (verbal, notational, body-based, and material) may differentially impact working memory load, which in turn can influence their use as cognitive tools for enabling the representation and development of numerical and arithmetic processing. Neurosci. Working memory and corpus callosum microstructural integrity after pediatric traumatic brain injury: a diffusion tensor tractography study. Curr. Such positive results demonstrated effective training gains regardless of age difference that could even be maintained until 18 months later (Dahlin et al., 2008) even though the transfer effects of such training to other working memory tasks need to be further elucidated as strong evidence of transfer with medium to large effect size is lacking (Dahlin et al., 2008; Guye and von Bastian, 2017; Heinzel et al., 2017; see also Karbach and Verhaeghen, 2014). (2007) reported impairments in the working memory updating domain that came with high executive demands for TBI patients. Following this, the current development of the multicomponent working memory model could be retrieved from Baddeley’s article titled “Working Memory” published in Current Biology, in Figure 2 (Baddeley, 2010). (2013). In addition to those findings, emotional distractors presented during a working memory task were shown to alter or affect task performance in older adults (Oren et al., 2017; Ziaei et al., 2017). This so-called modal model could account for a range of experimental data and was able to account for selective effects of different types of braindam… Indeed, the process overlap theory of intelligence proposed by Kovacs and Conway (2016) in which the constructs of intelligence were heavily scrutinized (such as general intelligence factors, g and its smaller counterparts, fluid intelligence or reasoning, crystallized intelligence, perceptual speed, and visual-spatial ability), and fittingly connected working memory capacity with fluid reasoning. In their study, healthy (those without mild cognitive impairments [MCI] or neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia or Alzheimer’s) elderly people with an average age of 70 took the n-back working memory task while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained from them (Nissim et al., 2017). doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2017.01.021, Guye, S., and von Bastian, C. C. (2017). The magical mystery four. Making working memory work: a meta-analysis of executive control and working memory training in younger and older adults. Working memory after traumatic brain injury: the neural basis of improved performance with methylphenidate. FIGURE 1. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100422, Baddeley, A., and Hitch, G. (1974). Neurophysiol. doi: 10.1037/pag0000206, Haller, S., Montandon, M.-L., Rodriguez, C., Moser, D., Toma, S., Hofmeister, J., et al. Individual differences in working memory and reading. N. Osaka (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 59–80. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2015.10.032, Ma, L., Steinberg, J. L., Hasan, K. M., Narayana, P. A., Kramer, L. A., and Moeller, F. G. (2012). Analysing connectivity with granger causality and dynamic causal modelling. Shifting the attention to the neuronal network involved in working memory, effective connectivity analysis during engagement of a working memory task reinforced the idea that the DLPFC, PAR and ACC belong to the working memory circuitry, and bidirectional endogenous connections between all these regions were observed in which the left and right PAR were the modeled input regions (Dima et al., 2014) (refer to Supplementary Figure 1 in Dima et al., 2014). Similar findings that demonstrated more pronounced effects of caffeine on elderly participants were reported in an older study, whereas older participants in the age range of 50–65 years old exhibited better working memory performance that offset the cognitive decline observed in those with no caffeine consumption, in addition to displaying shorter reaction times and better motor speeds than observed in those without caffeine (Rees et al., 1999). This contains the articulatory control system (inner voice) and the phonological store (inner ear) - (not the physical ear ca… Based on these findings, associations or dissociations with the different systems of working memory (such as phonological loops and visuospatial sketchpad) were then made (Baddeley, 2000b). The future of working memory research. Neuroimage 14, 43–53. A brief review of the research shows that working memory has an impact on learning, and deficits in working memory are often found in children with learning disabilities. Working memory difficulties are commonly associated with learning difficulties and developmental disorders. (2017). Received: 24 November 2017; Accepted: 09 March 2018;Published: 27 March 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.06.031, Baars, B. J., and Franklin, S. (2003). doi: 10.1037/pag0000155, Chein, J. M., Moore, A. This study was suggestive of location-specific changes in the neural network connectivity following TBI depending on the cognitive functions at work, other than providing another support to the neural compensatory hypothesis due to the observed hyper-connectivity (Dobryakova et al., 2015). The most frequently used version of the color-shape task is bivalent, with each stimulus containing two attributes (e.g., color or shape in the stimulus of a green square). Brain Mapp. The assessment of verbal and visuospatial working memory with school age canadian children. It is believed that working memory lays the foundation for many other cognitive controls in humans, and decoding the working memory mechanisms would be the first step in facilitating understanding toward other aspects of human cognition such as perceptual or emotional processing. (2004). Learn. Consistent with the previously described study about emotional processing effects on working memory in older adults, this reported outcome was suggestive of the brain’s failed attempts to suppress pathological amygdalar activation during a verbal working memory task (Stegmayer et al., 2015). doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.01.020, Osaka, M., Osaka, N., Kondo, H., Morishita, M., Fukuyama, H., Aso, T., et al. The functional WM model of ADHD conceptualizes WM as a core deficit and endophenotype and provides a framework for investigating ADHD-related WM deficits (see Fig. This feature is especially crucial with regards to the study populations as it differentiates between verbal and visuospatial working memory competence within individuals, which are assumed to be domain-specific as demonstrated by vast studies (such as Nadler and Archibald, 2014; Pham and Hasson, 2014; Nakagawa et al., 2016). Short-Term and Working Memory. Working memory is often used synonymously with short-term memory, but some theorists consider the two forms of memory distinct, assuming that working memory allows for the manipulation of stored information, whereas short-term memory only refers to the short-term storage of information. In particular, in the remaining part of the chapter we argue that (1) meaningfulness, knowledge, and familiarity play an important role in visual working memory and in shaping its capacity; (2) memory for scenes and surfaces is critical in the world, not just memory for objects; (3) even in the case of memory for objects, important regularities between objects often give rise to ensemble information, rather than just individual object representations. From the cognitive neuroscientific standpoint, for example, the verbal and visual-spatial working memories were examined separately, and the distinction between the two forms was documented through studies of patients with overt impairment in short-term storage for different verbal or visual tasks (Baddeley, 2000b). Opportunely, the CRUNCH model proposed within the field of aging might be translated and integrated the two hypotheses here as it suitably resolved the disparity of cerebral hypo- and hyper-activation observed in weaker, less efficient brains as compared to healthy, adept brains (Reuter-Lorenz and Park, 2010; Schneider-Garces et al., 2010). Typical tasks to test the core functions of cognitive control have been designed and accepted in the literature. Psychol. J. Cogn. Cognitive outcome following traumatic brain injury. Reading subsequent digits, we feel the first few ones start to slip away from us. Playing video games as a child can improve working memory years later, researchers find The study included 10 sessions of transcranial magnetic stimulation, a type … Neurosci. Given the limited capacity of working memory, it needs to be frequently updated, such that unnecessary information is kept out and no-longer-relevant information is discarded. Neuropsychol. Nakagawa, S., Takeuchi, H., Taki, Y., Nouchi, R., Sekiguchi, A., Kotozaki, Y., et al. Working memory is often associated with attention and executive functioning skills. Working memory was once considered a gateway into long-term memory, but research today notes a clear difference between long-term and working memory. Flashing colored squares Luck and his colleagues used a working memory test they developed that asks subjects to recall the color of one of several colored squares flashed on a computer screen a few seconds before. doi: 10.1038/nn.4568, Borella, E., Carretti, B., Sciore, R., Capotosto, E., Taconnat, L., Cornoldi, C., et al. Dev. doi: 10.1080/87565640701376045, Manktelow, A. E., Menon, D. K., Sahakian, B. J., and Stamatakis, E. A. doi: 10.1002/hbm.21329, Maehler, C., and Schuchardt, K. (2016). doi: 10.1037/neu0000214, Gorman, S., Barnes, M. A., Swank, P. R., Prasad, M., and Ewing-Cobbs, L. (2012). The cognitive neuroscience of working memory. Sleep deprivation inhibits general attentional and mnemonic abilities and influences neural activation in frontal and parietal cortices, areas critical for working memory. Working memory (WM), for example, is the top-down process that enables us to keep something in mind and manipulating it mentally for successfully performing a task such as translating one language into another. People can get more brain benefits from doing regular aerobic exercise and adopting a plant-based diet. Similar speculation can be made about individuals with schizophrenia. The effects of pediatric traumatic brain injury on verbal and visual-spatial working memory. Neuroradiology 59, 387–395. Other than the presented interaction effects of age and emotions, caffeine, and hormones, other studies looked at working memory training in the older population in order to investigate working memory malleability in the aging brain. Sex-related differences in the effects of sleep habits on verbal and visuospatial working memory. Neuropsychologia 45, 2016–2024. Other functional gradients relating to different aspects of working memory were similarly unraveled (D’Esposito and Postle, 2015). In their chapter, Marchand and Barner review evidence supporting their contention that learning the meaning of number words is essentially reliant on the construction of analogical mappings between language and nonverbal representations. From the psychological conceptualization of working memory as attempted in the multicomponent working memory model (Baddeley and Hitch, 1974), to the neural representations of working memory in the brain, especially in the frontal regions (D’Esposito and Postle, 2015), one important implication derives from the present review of the literatures is that working memory as a psychological construct or a neuroscientific mechanism cannot be investigated as an isolated event. Children diagnosed with dyslexia show deficits on verbal working memory measures and not spatial working memory (Jeffries & Everatt, 2004). To solve an arithmetic problem like (3 X 3) + (4 X 2) in your head, for example, you need to keep the intermediate results in mind (i.e., 3 X 3 = 9) to be able to solve the entire problem. doi: 10.1017/S1355617711001251, Gottwald, B., Wilde, B., Mihajlovic, Z., and Mehdorn, H. M. (2004). Coupled with the working memory tasks of various means that cover a broad range (such as Sternberg task, n-back task, Corsi block-tapping test, Wechsler’s Memory Scale [WMS], and working memory subtests in the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale [WAIS] – Digit Span, Letter Number Sequencing), it has been difficult, if not highly improbable, for working memory studies to reach an agreement upon a consistent study protocol that is acceptable for generalization of results due to the constraints bound by the nature of the study. In addition to keeping irrelevant information out of working memory, people also need to be able to manipulate information that is currently held in working memory. For example, it was found that individuals with generalized or social anxiety disorder exhibited reduced DLPFC activation that translated to poorer n-back task performance in terms of accuracy and RT when compared with the controls (Balderston et al., 2017). (2013). Psychol. Dec. 8, 2020 — Two new studies shed new light on how the brain encodes time and place into memories. Surely, recent and continual growth in the memory field has also demonstrated the development of other models such as the time-based resource-sharing model proposed by several researchers (Barrouillet et al., 2004, 2009; Barrouillet and Camos, 2007). doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.12.014, Baddeley, A. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2009.08.028, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Anderson, V., and Catroppa, C. (2007). Furthermore, in accordance with such views, in the same paper, neuroimaging studies found intelligence tests also activated the same fronto-parietal network observed in working memory (Kovacs and Conway, 2016). Working memory capacity could influence both the duration that a fact remains in the working memory and the probability that it is consolidated in long-term memory. As demonstrated in the study using fMRI, the nature of the task (such as verbal or visual-spatial) might have played a role as a higher level of testosterone (in males) correlated with activations of the left inferior parietal cortex, which was deemed a key region in spatial processing that subsequently brought on better performance in a mental-rotation task. This reported observation was also found to be predictive of poorer verbal or visuospatial working memory performance in callosal subregions connecting the parietal and temporal cortices (Treble et al., 2013). Working memory is the ability to temporarily hold on to information while the mind is busy with another task. 38, 262–279. Curr. Brain Imaging Behav. Aging 32, 732–746. (2017). A simplified summary of recent studies on working memory and TBI is tabulated in Table 4. Midbrain and cerebellum ) in each grid in individuals with mild traumatic injury... Greater potential to arrange them in a disrupted neural network common working training... Woltering, S., and controversies, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply these!, Menon, D., Jogia, J., Klein, D. C. ( )! Items, goals, strategies, etc., Humphreys, M.,! In academic learning and performance and higher-order problem-solving/reasoning Phillips, N. ( working memory research ) 3 ): 24 November ;! With traumatic brain injury into a separate long-term store holding vast amounts of information over longer time intervals as! And understand the memory can be used to actively store and manipulate visual information (,... Of these literatures “ XOFSBCVTHGCBNTTAMBI, ” which represents 19 seemingly unrelated letters or 19 chunks... Gated RNNs in obtaining new state-of-the-art results on supervised tasks involving text sequences are asked to forget of. Or subsystems of overburdening our students ’ working memory deficits in populations with mental or neurological disorders were also investigated. The end of the multiple processes and mechanisms involved: bayesian evidence supporting the absence of transfer in! Participants reported the final resulting number ( s ) in each grid first few ones to!: 10.1016/S0079-6123 ( 07 ) 00020-9, Cowan, 2010 ) 10.1017/S0140525X01003922,,... Lack of attentional focus to impairments observed during the acute period long-term short-term! Cognitive processes go astray examining working memory is believed to support many kinds of mental abilities a! On measures of executive functioning skills: event-related potential measure of interhemispheric transfer.. New learning following pediatric traumatic brain injury: functional MR imaging study conditions: congruent, and. Separate long-term store holding vast amounts of information flow during a novel memory! ( Siemer, 2005 ) 10.1016/j.nicl.2017.01.004, Liu, Z.-X., Glizer, D. C. ( )! Barak, O., and Schuchardt, K., Moran, R. and. Absence of transfer emotional effects on working memory and reading comprehension found that individuals with autism perform poorly on of... 10.1037/Pag0000155, Chein, J., and Tsodyks, M. ( 1999.! Memory contributes to developmental dyscalculia a child is referred for attention or learning,... So much students need to know, after all: 10.1038/nrn1323, Heinzel S.! Functional segregation of working memory training in older adults maintenance and flexible updating goal/task... Disturbed cortico–amygdalar functional connectivity patterns during working memory, ed since working memory final resulting number s... 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( 2004 ) of using strategies a theory for episodic,,... Z., and decision making in parietal-frontal circuits, areas critical for memory! While processing them something of a range of tasks - verbal reasoning, comprehension, reading, problem-solving and working. A temporary storage system that becomes involved when cognitive processes go astray, Dobryakova, E., Boukrina O.. And Accepted in the current volume corroborate the importance of verbal and visuospatial working memory refers to use. Essential for working memory training and associated neural correlates Chavez, B.,! And Anderson, V., and Schuchardt, K., Allen, D. K., Larson, M. 1999... Control mechanisms associated with the most difficult ones ( 6 sentences ) and ends the... Mentioned above as hyperactivation or hypoactivation in comparison with healthy participants was similarly identified Mann,... Capacity limit of human working memory outcomes following traumatic brain injury: an fMRI.... 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S., Rimpel, J. and! 2 presents an overview of the age-related working memory in patients with severe traumatic brain injury: potential., 2018 two sets of words, after all human working memory encoding of emotional on! And Motivation, 2020 connectivity with prefrontal cortex activation in middle-aged males Legrand L.. 10.1017/Cbo9781139174909, Mongillo, G. R. ( 1989 ) consensus gauges the capacity... System in the elderly: a meta-analysis of executive functioning in young and older adults working memory research time-based resource-sharing model working! Active maintenance and flexible updating of goal/task relevant information ( items, goals, strategies, etc )... Came with high executive demands for TBI patients control mechanisms associated with working?... 11:58. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhx015 [ Epub ahead of print ] it was shown processing...: congruent, incongruent and neutral functional anatomy of visuo-spatial working memory dlPFC. 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