Smith, I. Like the Hawaiiki network upon which it was modelled, this became the medium for the dissemination of raw materials, manufactured products such as stone adzes, information, and social support. The exploitation of Mayor Island obsidian in prehistoric New Zealand. Oral histories were typically structured around the principles of tribal organisation that prevailed in the 19th century and the stories revolved around the actions of semi-autonomous lineage groups descended from eponymous ancestors acting under the leadership of powerful chiefs (Ballara 1998). All non-text content is subject to specific conditions. Higham, T., Hedges, R., Anderson, A., Bronk Ramsey, C., & Fankhauser, B. doi:10.1080/15564890600579858. There is no significant stratigraphic complexity and the site is best interpreted as a large village that was occupied for decades but not centuries. 105, 385–410. Figure 5 shows the source locations of tools recovered from Wairau Bar; this is nearly the full range of material known to have been in use in 14th century New Zealand. Group 1 comprises eight individuals (five males, one female, and two undetermined) and is considered to represent the earliest burial phase at the site. First migrants: Ancient migration in global perspective. This included the two individuals we sequenced from Group 1: Burial 1, the only female, and Burial 2.1, a young adult male. Rapid extinction of the moas (Aves: Dinorinthiformes): Model, test, and implications. Christchurch: Canterbury College. It took great skill and courage for Māori navigators to arrive in Aotearoa New Zealand. Polynesian Migration. The midden assemblage was equally rich and diverse, containing the bones of many extinct species of bird (including moa) as well as sea mammals, domestic dogs, fish and shellfish. As in tropical East Polynesia, this involved the establishment of a communication network linking communities on an expanding colonial frontier. 73, 420–427. History of excavations at Wairau Bar. Subsequent immigration has been chiefly from the British Isles, but also from continental Europe, the Pacific, the Americas and Asia. Instead the range of industrial resources found in colonisation-phase sites strongly suggests that a systematic exploration programme was established immediately upon arrival, which resulted in the rapid acquisition of geographical knowledge and the establishment of an exchange or communication network linking sites around the country. These artefacts are part of a wider ‘Archaic East Polynesian’ or ‘Early East Polynesian’ material culture assemblage that is found in the earliest sites from the Cook Islands through much of French Polynesia (Bellwood 1970; Duff 1950; Sinoto 1970; Fig. Radiocarbon, What is debated is the origins of the first people who settled in this region between 1500-1300 BCE, … 4. the South or Pakeha (European) face has grid-like patterns that reflect the patterns o… 220–229). Wellington: Reed. In: Lowe, D.J. Subsequently Jacomb et al. Excavations uncovered a vast and diverse assemblage of early East Polynesian (‘Archaic’) style artefacts, including finely flaked stone adzes; personal ornaments made of shell, dentalium, bone, tooth and stone; and fishing equipment. Abstract This paper reintroduces the concept of mass migration into debates concerning the timing and nature of New Zealand’s settlement by Polynesians. Polynesia is characterized by a small amount of land spread over a very large portion of the mid- and southern Pacific Ocean.It comprises approximately 300,000 to 310,000 square kilometres (117,000 to 118,000 sq mi) of land, of which more than 270,000 km 2 (103,000 sq mi) are within New Zealand.The Hawaiian archipelago comprises about half the remainder. In this model the primary drivers of cultural success were demographic growth and ecological adaptation—similar processes to those used to model the success and expansion of non-human coloniser species. 1; Walter et al. 32, 135–146. In contemporary Polynesian migration, strategies for maintaining contact between communities of common origin and association are crucial for social reproduction and identity (Green and Green 2007, p. 251). Arrival of rats in New Zealand. Obsidian, colonizing and exchange. (1974). 2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10963-017-9110-y, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10963-017-9110-y, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2013, p. 7). But the problem of dismissing the Great Fleet and other migration ‘traditions’ is that, regardless of their literal veracity, they deal with concepts that are vital to understanding migration, such as motive, planning, leadership, decision making and agency. There are various possible models for the colonisation of an unoccupied landscape. We have seen this pattern play out historically with 19th century Maori leaders such as Te Rauparaha (Burns 1980; Te Rauparaha and Butler 1980) and Te Kooti (Binney 1995), who drew their followers into complex and costly endeavours with radical social, economic and religious implications. The prehistoric exploration and colonisation of the Pacific. Science, In M. A. Katzenberg & S. Saunders (Eds. Buckley, H., Tayles, N., Halcrow, S. E., Robb, K., & Fyfe, R. (2010). The Polynesians brought with them kūmara (sweet potatoes) and yams, which grew well in the warmer North Island. Archaeologists would draw on these narratives to explain an archaeological phenomenon by matching their site data to key events in the narratives, such as the arrival of a particular tribal group in an area or phases of warfare associated with named chiefs and such like (e.g., Duff 1942, 1950). Sources of stone known to have been used in the first half of the fourteenth century and which were moved in exchange networks over distances of hundreds to more than 2000 km. Annals of Human Genetics, 41, 329–339. ... not the consequence of gradual demographic growth out of a currently unidentified earlier phase of settlement. In the South Island, hunting and gathering remained the main mode of survival. All of these historical events were charted against whakapapa—the lines of genealogical decent that lie at the heart of Maori social identity and history, and which establish relationships between individuals and different social groups (Barlow 1994; Metge 1976). For humans to survive economically, culturally, socially and reproductively, they must operate within the framework of a community. Around 1300 CE Polynesian settlers used subtropical weather systems to navigate their way to New Zealand. Archaeology in Oceania, 367–380). The model we have presented here implies higher levels of central planning and management than are usually assumed in Polynesian migration theory, and this raises the question of motivation. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.15.9047. In this narrative, New Zealand was discovered by a named Polynesian navigator around 800 AD; it was revisited several times from Hawaiiki (including by the famous Maori explorer Kupe) before being colonised by a fleet of canoes (referred to as the ‘Great Fleet’ in various New Zealand traditions) around 1350 AD, whose captains became the eponymous founders of today’s tribes (Smith et al. Te Rauparaha: A new perspective. The earliest radiocarbon dates were shown to be poorly supported (Anderson 1991) and none of the ‘Archaic’ sites could be confidently dated to earlier than 1300 AD. (1998). These migrants were the ancestors of New Zealand’s Māori people. 1994) that make it difficult to resolve sites into a tight chronological sequence. The history of islands always commences with a single contact event, and Maori society, like other Polynesian societies, recognises this fact in the fundamentals of ideology and socio-political structures. The New Zealand Company. When the community appealed to the government it emphasized that ‘mass migration was not sought and that the life history and capabilities of every The Wairau Bar site is located on the southern side of the Wairau and Opawa river mouths, at the northern end of a long boulder bank that encloses the Wairau lagoons. Clark, R. (1979). Includes most of the ‘moa hunting’ sites identified by Anderson (1989a, b, pp. It was not until 1642 that Europeans became aware the country existed. Honolulu: Bishop Museum. There followed a formative period of adaptation and population growth over several centuries, during which time the Polynesian settlers explored new landscapes, modified their tropical subsistence systems and learned to exploit the resource base of a new climate and ecology. Artefacts at these sites include finely-made stone adzes and flaked stone assemblages; fishing gear made of bone, stone and shell; and personal ornaments in bone, ivory, shell, tooth and stone (Golson 1959). The number of people who identify under Pacific peoples ethnicity increased 11.3 percent from the 2006 Census. (2014). 2014, p. 29). The essential strategy of the colonists seems to have been to reproduce the social and economic structures of Hawaiiki in the new land. Anderson (1991, p. 790) was also aware of the implications of a rapid widespread appearance of sites, and noted that planned mass migration—not unlike the Norse settlement of Greenland—could not be ruled out as an explanation. The second part of our ‘strategic migration’ model is concerned with colonisation—the spread and establishment of populations, and the process of connecting them into a socially and economically viable colony. 73, 143–160. Current Biology, Patterns of prehistoric human mobility in Polynesia indicated by mtDNA from the Pacific rat. Matisoo-Smith, E., Roberts, R., Irwin, G. J., Allen, J. S., Penny, D., & Lambert, D. M. (1998). Reciting whakapapa (genealogies) was an important way to communicate knowledge. Weisler, M. I., Bolhar, R., Ma, J., St Pierre, E., Sheppard, P., Walter, R., et al. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 New Zealand Licence. © Crown Copyright. The Prehistory of New Zealand. New Zealand Archaeoligcal Association Monograph, No. The two larger islands, north and south, are the main population centers. The Group 1 individuals display a similar dietary trend to individuals from Hanamiai, a colonisation-phase site in the Marquesas, tropical East Polynesia (Kinaston et al. 84, 497–513. In our view, the current data is not a partial and biased fragment, but a representative and well preserved account of New Zealand’s Polynesian settlement. Ballara, A. Wairau Bar lies within a narrow and crucial economic zone where there was a high standing biomass of moa and where tropical horticulture is still viable (Fig. ), The growth and collapse of Pacific Island societies: Archaeological and demographic perspectives (pp. Memoirs of the Polynesian Society, 3 & 4. These attest to the role of Wairau Bar in the early stone adze industry: adze preforms brought in from the fine-grained argillite sources of Nelson and D’Urville Island were made into finished forms that were widely used on site. One of the most powerful lines of evidence that Wairau Bar was a ritual or symbolic centre for the new colony comes from the excavation of an oven pit and midden complex in the 2009 excavations by the authors. 2012). There are five ovens in total within the cluster, suggesting that ritual feasting was a regular occurrence in this precinct of the site. 2, 93–102. 95, 9047–9052. 207–226). The website Te Ara from the New Zealand Govt gives a great amount of detail as well as images, maps and multimedia. Outside of the Group 1 burial cluster, several other individuals interred on the site have strontium stable isotope signatures indicating that they spent much of their life outside the local region (Kinaston et al. The Group 1 individuals were identified as ‘immigrants’ to the site (along with two males from outside that group). 30, Issue. The feature dated by Jacomb et al. Although the key elements of these three processes—establishment of bases, building connectivity and population expansion—all occurred during the Polynesian colonisation in the 14th century as well, the difference is that in the earlier colonisation period they occurred concurrently. Auckland: Oxford University Press. Burns, P. (1980). Prehistoric migration at Nebira, South Coast of Papua New Guinea: New insights into interaction using isotope and trace element concentration analyses. Figure 4 shows the location of industrial lithic resources known to have been in use within the 14th century and, as far as the radiocarbon record will allow, most seem to have been in use by around 1350 AD. Indeed, early explorers did not just map out New Zealand coastal waters in the colonisation phase but were exploring far offshore. The American Journal of Human Genetics, Environment and Behavior, 50, 24–30. We show that the rapid appearance of a strong archaeological signature in the early 14th century AD is the result of a mass migration event, not the consequence of gradual demographic growth out of a currently unidentified earlier phase of settlement. An analysis of the exchange of lithics in settlement period New Zealand (fourteenth century AD) is used to throw light on the mechanisms of colonisation more generally. Anderson, A. 1, 33–47. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. New Zealand archaeology and its Polynesian connections. The location appears bleak and windswept today, with poor soils and no fresh water, but for colonisers equipped with efficient coastal and offshore water craft its location had great economic and strategic advantage. Suggs, R. C. (1961). 2004; Holdaway 1996; Wilmshurst and Higham 2004). Simmons, D. R. (1976). This is one of the longest known ocean voyages of the preindustrial age and marks the point at which the natural world of an isolated Polynesian archipelago began its transformation into a cultural domain (Fig. Early years; A growing settlement: 1825 to 1839; British immigration and the New Zealand Company; The immigrants: 1840 to 1852; Settlement in the provinces: 1853 to 1870; Auckland’s immigrants: 1853 to 1870; Miners; The great migration: 1871 to 1885; The immigrants of the great migration; Depression: 1885 to 1900; Migration: 1900 to 1914; Between the wars; The … Archaeologists are not entirely confident that either demographic or ecological factors ‘pushed’ Polynesians to colonise, and have tended to look for explanation in social processes such as ‘founder rank expansion’, where junior lineages could establish seniority in new territories, for example (Bellwood 2013, p. 197). Antiquity, Some were short-lived (sojourner) ventures abandoned within decades. A simple matrix of linear distance between contemporary settlement zones provides more empirical evidence of the site’s centrality (Table 1). Yet before the 1960s, migration theory dominated discussions of culture change (Anthony 1990), and this was certainly true in New Zealand. Map of Polynesia showing the East Polynesian area including Aotearoa (New Zealand). Journal of Archaeological Science, (2013). Identifying the proximate cause of an archaeological migration event is notoriously difficult (Anthony 1990, p. 898), although this is a domain where oral history and tradition make claims to knowledge. In fact, the concept of ‘Hawaiiki’ as a homeland from which founding ancestors travelled out to found colonies on newly discovered islands is one that occurs throughout many of the islands of Polynesia (Kirch and Green 2001). Wallin, P., & Solsvik, R. (2010). 2011, p. 95). In fact, the probability spans of the Higham et al. 65, 767–795. If, instead, we accept a colonisation event in the early 1300s, a growth rate of only around 1% will easily result in a population of 100,000 at contact if the founder group size is increased to 500 people. Like those sites, Wairau Bar was a permanent village, located to provide safe access for deep-water sailing craft by residents who were participating in long-distance voyaging and exchange networks. ... Walter, R. (2004). One of t… (2014). The concepts of mana (status) and utu (reciprocity) were central to the culture, and led to widespread warfare. The two most common social events associated with ritual feasting in Maori society today are funerals and political investitures. There were two periods of settlement: 1. Abstract This paper reintroduces the concept of mass migration into debates concerning the timing and nature of New Zealand’s settlement by Polynesians. ), Fifty years in the field: Essays in honour and celebration of Richard Shutler Jr’s archaeological career. Jacob Roggeveen (Dutch) Discovered a Polynesian Is. A theory of migration. Most of the individuals outside of Group 1 had strontium isotope signatures that were close to those determined for the local environment, based on determinations of the archaeological dog population from the site. & New Zealand was much bigger than any other land the Polynesians had settled since jumping off … Warfare did not inhibit regular trade in desirable stones and foods, and was itself a means by which resources were appropriated. New Zealand Society of Soil Science. Hanamiai: Prehistoric colonization and cultural change in the prehistoric New Zealand. It is believed that Polynesian migration was planned and deliberate, with many waka hourua making return journeys to Hawaiki. Map of New Zealand | PlanetWare. These giant flightless birds of the ratite group were endemic to New Zealand but related to other ratites including ostriches, rhea, emu, tinamou and cassowary. They set a population size at contact of 150,000 people and a founder group size of around 50 individuals (Brewis et al. 384, 225–226. 249–270). Thus exploration, population dispersal, and the emergence of communication networks—processes which might be expected to occur sequentially in a new land—occurred rapidly and concurrently in New Zealand. ), Biological anthropology of the human skeleton (pp. Acus crenulatus is a tropical species not found in New Zealand waters and the tool must have been brought out with the migrants from Hawaiiki. (2014, p. 25) have demonstrated that the midden remains derive from a single cooking and discard episode and have argued that the oven feature was constructed and used as part of a ritual feasting event. We first look at the evidence for mass migration and then we look at colonisation behaviours through the lens of the 14th century archaeological record. Demography, Specht, J. DNA evidence clearly shows the founding population of New Zealand must have numbered in the hundreds. Founded as a commercial operation designed for investors, it was also based on the widespread view that population growth – regarded as desirable – was related to food production, and that the solution to mass starvation was to export surplus population. The navigator credited in some traditions with discovering New Zealand is Kupe. That is not to say that we reject the possibility of some pre-14th century settlement, but we do contend that there is no strong evidence for this and that such evidence is unnecessary to explain the extraordinarily rich record. Prospects ( pp and sequence in the Cook Islands., New Zealand was the target of a currently earlier... New agendas is worthwhile as it is possible that they either moved to Wairau Bar population was of! A National foundation story of 42 human burials at Wairau Bar burials in colonial New Zealand archaeology for of... 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